# Classification of Science

Science is divided into branches:

- Formal
- Natural
- Social

## Formal sciences¶

Formal sciences are a branch of science that deals with abstract concepts and theoretical systems, primarily using mathematical and logical methods to develop models and theories.

Formal sciences are a branch of science that deal with abstract concepts and theoretical systems. Unlike natural sciences, formal sciences do not study the physical world or natural phenomena, but instead focus on developing models and theories that describe and predict the behavior of mathematical and logical systems.

The primary aim of formal sciences is to develop and analyze mathematical and logical structures and their applications, with the goal of advancing our understanding of fundamental concepts and principles that underpin a wide range of scientific fields.

Formal sciences are used to model and analyze complex systems, often using advanced mathematical and computational techniques to develop accurate and precise predictions of behavior.

Formal sciences are essential to the development of many technologies, including computer programming and engineering, and have many practical applications in fields such as cryptography, artificial intelligence, and data analysis.

### Logic¶

There are several branches of logic, including:

Propositional logic: a branch of logic that deals with propositions and their relationships, typically represented using symbols such as "and," "or," and "not."

Predicate logic: a branch of logic that deals with predicates, which are statements that involve variables and can be either true or false depending on the values assigned to those variables.

Modal logic: a branch of logic that deals with modalities, such as possibility and necessity, and how they affect the truth of statements.

Temporal logic: a branch of logic that deals with the representation of time and how it affects the truth of statements.

Fuzzy logic: a branch of logic that deals with reasoning that is approximate or uncertain, typically used in artificial intelligence and decision-making systems.

Non-classical logics: a group of branches of logic that deviate from classical logic, which is based on the law of excluded middle, and instead allow for multiple truth values or other deviations from classical principles. Examples of non-classical logics include paraconsistent logic and intuitionistic logic.

### Data science¶

Data science is an interdisciplinary field that combines several branches of science and technology to extract insights and knowledge from data. Some of the main branches of data science include:

Mathematics and statistics: data science heavily relies on mathematical and statistical methods to extract insights from data, and to develop and evaluate machine learning algorithms.

Computer science: data science requires strong programming skills, as well as an understanding of computer architectures, algorithms, and data structures.

Data engineering: data science relies on the availability of large volumes of high-quality data, which requires expertise in data engineering, including data acquisition, storage, processing, and management.

Machine learning: machine learning is a subfield of artificial intelligence that focuses on the development of algorithms that can learn from data and make predictions or decisions.

Data visualization: data science often involves creating visual representations of data to help communicate insights and facilitate understanding.

Domain expertise: data science also requires expertise in the domain of the data being analyzed, such as finance, healthcare, or social media.

It's worth noting that data science is a rapidly evolving field, and new branches and specializations are emerging all the time, such as natural language processing, deep learning, and big data analytics.

### Information science¶

Information science is an interdisciplinary field that deals with the processing, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of information. Some of the main branches of information science include:

Information organization: information science involves the organization of information resources, including the design and implementation of classification systems, taxonomies, and ontologies.

Information retrieval: information science is concerned with developing methods and techniques for retrieving relevant information from large databases and other sources.

Information architecture: information science involves the design and organization of digital information systems, including websites, databases, and other digital resources.

Human-computer interaction: information science involves the study of how people interact with digital information systems, and how to design systems that are intuitive, user-friendly, and effective.

Information policy: information science involves the development of policies and regulations around information access, privacy, security, and intellectual property.

Digital preservation: information science is concerned with the long-term preservation of digital information, including developing standards and best practices for data storage, backup, and archiving.

It's worth noting that information science is a highly interdisciplinary field, and it intersects with many other fields, such as computer science, library science, cognitive science, and communication. As such, new branches and specializations are emerging all the time, such as data science and information visualization.

### Mathematics¶

Mathematics is a broad field that encompasses many different branches and sub-disciplines. Here are some of the main branches of mathematics:

... a branch of mathematics that deals with...

#### Algebra¶

- the study of mathematical structures and the operations that can be performed on them, such as addition, multiplication, and division.

#### Geometry¶

- the study of shapes, sizes, and positions of objects in space.

#### Calculus¶

- the study of rates of change and accumulation, and is used extensively in science, engineering, and economics.

#### Number theory¶

- the properties and relationships of numbers, including prime numbers and other special types of numbers.

#### Statistics¶

- the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data, and is used extensively in scientific research, business, and government.

#### Combinatorics¶

- the study of discrete structures and relationships, such as graphs and networks.

#### Topology¶

- the study of properties of objects that are preserved under continuous transformations, such as stretching, bending, and twisting.

#### Logic¶

- the study of formal systems and reasoning.

#### Applied mathematics¶

- applies mathematical concepts and methods to real-world problems in areas such as engineering, physics, finance, and biology.

### Statistics¶

Statistics is the science of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data. Here are some of the main branches of statistics:

Descriptive statistics: a branch of statistics that deals with the analysis of data in order to summarize or describe its main features, such as measures of central tendency and measures of dispersion.

Inferential statistics: a branch of statistics that deals with the use of sample data to make inferences or predictions about a larger population.

Probability theory: a branch of mathematics that deals with the study of random phenomena and their probability distributions.

Regression analysis: a branch of statistics that deals with the analysis of relationships between variables, and is used to predict one variable based on one or more other variables.

Time series analysis: a branch of statistics that deals with the analysis of data that is collected over time, and is used to identify patterns and trends in the data.

Experimental design: a branch of statistics that deals with the design of experiments in order to ensure that the data collected is reliable and can be used to draw valid conclusions.

Bayesian statistics: a branch of statistics that deals with the use of Bayesian methods to analyze data and make statistical inferences.

Biostatistics: a branch of statistics that deals with the application of statistical methods to the study of biological and medical phenomena.

Econometrics: a branch of statistics that deals with the application of statistical methods to the study of economic phenomena.

It's worth noting that these branches of statistics are not mutually exclusive, and many statistical problems and applications require expertise in several different branches of statistics.

### Systems theory¶

Systems theory is an interdisciplinary field of study that aims to understand and analyze complex systems as a whole, rather than as isolated parts. It is based on the idea that systems are composed of interconnected and interdependent components that interact with each other and with their environment. The goal of systems theory is to develop a holistic understanding of these systems and their behavior, in order to better predict and control their outcomes.

There are several branches of systems theory, including:

General systems theory: a branch of systems theory that deals with the fundamental principles and concepts of systems theory, and their application to a wide range of fields and disciplines.

Cybernetics: a branch of systems theory that deals with the study of feedback and control mechanisms in systems, and their application to engineering, biology, and other fields.

Chaos theory: a branch of systems theory that deals with the study of nonlinear systems and their behavior, including the phenomenon of chaos and the butterfly effect.

Complex systems theory: a branch of systems theory that deals with the study of complex systems and their behavior, including emergent properties and self-organization.

Systems engineering: a branch of systems theory that deals with the design, development, and implementation of complex systems, including hardware, software, and organizational systems.

Systems biology: a branch of systems theory that deals with the study of biological systems, including cells, tissues, and organisms, as complex systems.

Social systems theory: a branch of systems theory that deals with the study of social systems, including organizations, communities, and societies, as complex systems.

It's worth noting that these branches of systems theory are highly interconnected and often overlap, and that systems theory is a highly interdisciplinary field that draws on concepts and methods from mathematics, physics, biology, engineering, and other disciplines.

### Decision Theory¶

Decision theory is a field of study that deals with the analysis of decision-making under uncertainty, with the goal of making better decisions. It provides a framework for analyzing decisions, and for choosing among different possible actions based on their potential outcomes and the probabilities associated with them.

There are several branches of decision theory, including:

Normative decision theory: a branch of decision theory that deals with the analysis of rational decision-making, and seeks to establish what constitutes an optimal decision under ideal circumstances.

Descriptive decision theory: a branch of decision theory that deals with the analysis of how people actually make decisions, and seeks to describe and explain the psychological and cognitive processes that underlie decision-making.

Prescriptive decision theory: a branch of decision theory that seeks to provide practical guidelines and techniques for making better decisions, based on the principles of normative decision theory.

Behavioral decision theory: a branch of decision theory that deals with the study of how people actually make decisions in real-world settings, and seeks to explain the factors that influence decision-making, such as cognitive biases and heuristics.

Multi-criteria decision analysis: a branch of decision theory that deals with the analysis of decision-making in situations where there are multiple criteria or objectives that need to be taken into account.

Game theory: a branch of decision theory that deals with the analysis of strategic interactions between decision-makers, and seeks to identify optimal strategies in situations where the outcome of one's decision depends on the decisions of others.

Decision analysis: a branch of decision theory that deals with the quantitative analysis of decision-making, and uses mathematical models to evaluate the potential outcomes of different decisions.

It's worth noting that these branches of decision theory are highly interconnected, and often draw on concepts and methods from other fields, such as economics, psychology, and mathematics.

### Theoretical computer science¶

Theoretical computer science is a branch of computer science that deals with the study of algorithms, computation, and information, with an emphasis on mathematical and logical foundations. It focuses on the abstract study of computation and communication, and seeks to understand the fundamental properties and limits of computing systems.

There are several branches of theoretical computer science, including:

Algorithms: the study of the design, analysis, and complexity of algorithms, which are step-by-step procedures for solving problems.

Complexity theory: the study of the inherent difficulty of computational problems, and the resources required to solve them, such as time, space, and randomness.

Automata theory: the study of abstract machines and their ability to recognize and process languages, including finite automata, pushdown automata, and Turing machines.

Formal languages: the study of formal systems for representing and manipulating strings of symbols, including regular expressions, context-free grammars, and formal semantics.

Logic and semantics: the study of the logical foundations of computer science, including formal logic, proof theory, and model theory, and their applications to programming language semantics and verification.

Cryptography and security: the study of techniques for secure communication and information protection, including encryption, digital signatures, and key exchange protocols.

Combinatorics and graph theory: the study of discrete structures and their applications to computer science, including graph algorithms, network optimization, and combinatorial optimization.

It's worth noting that these branches of theoretical computer science are highly interconnected, and often overlap with other fields, such as mathematics, physics, and engineering. Theoretical computer science is a foundational discipline for computer science as a whole, and provides the theoretical underpinnings for many practical applications in areas such as artificial intelligence, software engineering, and data science.

## Natural sciences¶

### Physical science¶

#### Physics¶

The study of matter, energy, and their interactions.

There are many branches of physics, some of which include:

Classical mechanics: The study of the motion of macroscopic objects and the forces that cause that motion.

Thermodynamics: The study of the relationship between heat, energy, and work.

Electromagnetism: The study of electric and magnetic fields and their interactions.

Optics: The study of light and its properties, including reflection, refraction, and diffraction.

Atomic and molecular physics: The study of the properties and behavior of atoms and molecules.

Quantum mechanics: The study of the behavior of particles at the atomic and subatomic level.

Condensed matter physics: The study of the physical properties of solid and liquid materials.

Astrophysics: The study of the properties and behavior of celestial objects, including stars and galaxies.

Nuclear physics: The study of the properties and behavior of atomic nuclei and their interactions with particles.

Particle physics: The study of the fundamental particles and forces that make up the universe.

Biophysics: The study of the application of physics to biological systems, including the study of the physical properties of biomolecules and cells.

These branches of physics are highly interconnected, and often overlap with other fields, such as mathematics, engineering, and chemistry.

#### Chemistry¶

The study of the composition, structure, properties, and reactions of matter.

There are many branches of chemistry, some of which include:

Organic chemistry: The study of carbon-based compounds and their reactions.

Inorganic chemistry: The study of non-carbon-based compounds and their reactions.

Physical chemistry: The study of the physical properties and behavior of chemicals and their reactions.

Analytical chemistry: The study of the composition and properties of chemicals and their reactions, including the development of methods for chemical analysis.

Biochemistry: The study of the chemical processes and reactions that occur within living organisms.

Polymer chemistry: The study of the synthesis and properties of polymers, including plastics, fibers, and other materials.

Environmental chemistry: The study of the chemical processes and reactions that occur in the environment, including the study of pollution and its effects.

Materials chemistry: The study of the properties and behavior of materials, including metals, ceramics, and semiconductors.

Medicinal chemistry: The study of the design and synthesis of drugs and other pharmaceuticals.

These branches of chemistry are highly interconnected, and often overlap with other fields, such as biology, physics, and engineering.

#### Earth science¶

The study of the physical processes that shape the Earth and its environment.

##### Geology¶

The study of the Earth's history, structure, and processes, including rocks, minerals, and fossils.

##### Oceanography¶

The study of the ocean, including its physical, chemical, and biological properties.

##### Meteorology¶

The study of the Earth's atmosphere and its weather patterns.

### Astronomy¶

The study of the universe beyond the Earth, including stars, planets, galaxies, and other celestial objects.

### Biology¶

The study of living organisms and their interactions with the environment.

#### Biochemistry¶

The study of the chemical processes that occur within living organisms.

#### Microbiology¶

The study of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi.

#### Botany¶

The study of plants, including their structure, growth, and evolution.

#### Zoology¶

The study of animals, including their structure, behavior, and evolution.

#### Ecology¶

The study of the relationships between living organisms and their environment.

There are several branches of ecology, including:

Behavioral ecology: The study of the behavior of animals in their natural habitats and how it relates to their survival and reproduction.

Population ecology: The study of the dynamics of populations of organisms, including factors that affect their growth, distribution, and abundance.

Community ecology: The study of the interactions between different species in an ecosystem and how they affect each other.

Ecosystem ecology: The study of the flow of energy and materials through an ecosystem and the interactions between the living and non-living components of the ecosystem.

Landscape ecology: The study of the patterns and processes of ecosystems over large spatial scales, including the effects of human activities on these ecosystems.

Conservation ecology: The study of the preservation and management of natural resources and biodiversity.

Restoration ecology: The study of the ecological restoration of degraded ecosystems and the development of strategies to restore them to their natural state.

These branches of ecology are interconnected, and often overlap with other fields, such as biology, geology, and environmental science.

## Social sciences¶

### Anthropology¶

### Area studies¶

### Business studies¶

### Civics¶

### Communication studies¶

### Criminology¶

### Demography¶

### Development studies¶

### Economics¶

### Education¶

### Environmental studies¶

### Folkloristics¶

### Gender studies¶

### Geography¶

### History¶

### Industrial relations¶

### Information science¶

### International relations¶

### Law¶

### Library science¶

### Linguistics¶

### Media studies¶

### Political science¶

### Psychology¶

### Public administration¶

### Sociology¶

### Social work¶

### Sustainable development¶

## Applied sciences¶

### Agriculture¶

### Architecture and design¶

### Business¶

### Communication¶

### Education¶

### Engineering¶

Engineering fields include - thermodynamics, - heat transfer, - fluid mechanics, - statics, - dynamics, - mechanics of materials, - kinematics, - electromagnetism, - materials science, - earth sciences, - engineering physics.

### Environmental science¶

### Health sciences¶

### Information science¶

### Law¶

### Military science¶

### Public administration¶

### Public health¶

### Transportation¶

### Other applied sciences¶

## Interdisciplinary fields¶

Bioinformatics Cognitive science Computational science Environmental science Materials science Nanotechnology Neuroscience Systems science Other interdisciplinary fields

## Foundation and application¶

### Formal science¶

Foundation: Logic; Mathematics; Statistics

Application: Computer science

### Empirical sciences¶

##### Natural science¶

Foundation: Physics; Chemistry; Biology; Earth science; Astronomy Application: Engineering; Agricultural science; Medicine; Pharmacy

#### Social science¶

Foundation: Economics; Political science; Sociology; Psychology; Anthropology Application: Business administration; Jurisprudence; Pedagogy